| Case studies

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| Designing for passenger thermal comfort: Alstom Transport

ALSTOM had completed thermal comfort simulations of a driver’s cabin but had not accounted for the thermal influence of the driver. Renuda was commissioned to simulate the thermal effect of the driver by researching and classifying human body models; coding and coupling them to a CFD code; and undertaking simulations to assess the impact of the human body on thermal comfort.

| 3D CFD modelling for tunnel ventilation: SNCF

SNCF required CFD representations for tunnel ventilation that could be validated against experimental data collected over a period of time and under different working conditions, Renuda also had to produce a working model which could be used for future projects.

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| Modelling heat transfer processes: Arcelor Mittal

ArcelorMittal manufactures steel beams of differing sizes and were curious to learn; whether the reheating process could be achieved with less energy; identify alternative configurations to save energy; and investigate the reasons for non-homogeneous temperature distributions.

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| Developing sophisticated marine energy tools: University of Edinburgh

The University of Edinburgh, in partnership with ETI, initiated a project to validate numerical models that would reduce the level of uncertainty present in energy capture estimates.  The UoE’s role was to evaluate and scale test the most appropriate numerical modelling tools to design efficient wave energy conversion hydro turbines capable of analysing heterogeneous multi-phase flow.

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| Multiphase flow assurance: BP

Extracting oil from the sea bed results in a mixture of oil, water and sand being pumped to the oil rig. The wax, present in the oil, may deposit in the riser pipe bends. To ascertain whether the wax deposits would clog up the pipes leading to revenue loss, BP decided to investigate the problem using CFD.

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| Ventilation flow in tunnel: SNCF

SNCF Infrastructures, responsible for regenerating the 1380 active rail tunnels, ensure that the dust and toxic gases does not pose a health and safety risk by supplying sufficient ventilation. Their 1D mathematical model to evaluate air quality is not accurate for tunnels with complex geometries, they needed to establish whether 3D calculation chains would be more effective.

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| Gaseous mixing and explosions: MND

To make dangerous mountain sites safer the MND Group design and install systems which blow away unstable snow fields using gaseous explosions. They wanted to know whether Daisybell, their product designed to carry out these explosions, could be improved. Before consulting Renuda they believed CFD would be cost prohibitive realised that simulating the explosions would save money in the long term.

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| Smoke recirculation in tunnels for different wind conditions: BG Consulting Engineers

Tunnel experts, BG Consulting, were involved in designing a highway system in Greece which has three parallel, separate tunnel pairs accommodating traffic flow in both directions. The risk exists that smoke emanating from a fire in one tunnel could be reingested in the other tunnel due to their close proximity, wind conditions and tunnel ventilation settings. BG required simulation models to evaluate the risk of recirculation in the tunnel pairs.

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| Optimising gearbox cooling: Alstom Transport

Global market leader, ALSTOM Transport, use motorised and non-motorised bogeys located in bogey cavities underneath their Citadis and Dualis trams. Attached to each motorised bogey is a reduction gearbox which was overheating, having a detrimental impact on gearbox performance, maintenance schedules and operating life. ALSTOM used CFD to understand the problem.

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| Optimisation of a steam turbine: EDF R&D

EDF relies on its R&D division to modernise infrastructures, explore new energy possibilities and develop products. Faced with the challenge of optimising the retrofit of multi-stage steam turbines, and a demanding work schedule, they required the services of an outsourced company that fully understood turbomachinery and have experience of running numerical simulations using CAPTUR.

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| Improving ventilation ducting in high speed trains: SNCF

Millions of passengers use SNCF’s services and, as a result, simulation has played a significant role in their thermal comfort research they have been conducting since 2010 in order to enhance passenger comfort on their TGV and TER trains

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| Optimising HVAC compressors: Danfoss

A compressor’s performance depends on weather conditions and condensation pressure. Should the compressor delivery pressure be greater than the condensation pressure, it will consume excess electricity for no economic benefit. Danfoss assessed the performance of their scroll compressors’ relief valves, a component critical to regulating this imbalance, using CFD.

| Code development for power generation retrofit and erosion analysis: EDF R&D

Continually striving to solve power station evolution issues EDF commissioned a Russian institute to retrofit a steam turbine design in order to evaluate the potential for power increase. EDF required Renuda to verify the predicted improved turbine efficiency results using CAPTUR.

Experiencing erosion problems during the commissioning phase of a new combined cycle power plant EDF needed to resolve the problem to avoid costly downtimes. A solution was found by producing simulations to calculate the flow of particles inside the turbine which facilitated the comparison of erosion levels under different operating conditions.

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| Stochastic collision modelling: EDF R&D

Over a prolonged period of time corrosion congestion reduces the overall effectiveness of heat exchangers. EDF’s R&D department, having already developed an effective surface deposition model, needed to track millions of miniscule particulates colliding with each other and establish how they agglomerated to form clumps in flowing water.